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Blaise Pascal (1623–1662)

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French Mathematician Blaise Pascal did much to set in motion what is known today as modern mathematics. An unusually creative mathematician, he developed a number of theorems and mathematical structures, including the beginnings of probability theory and a more sophisticated understanding of the visa mer geometry of conic structures. At the age of 16, Pascal wrote a brilliant paper on conics; the paper consisted of one single printed page on which he states his major theorem - the opposite sides of any hexagon inscribed in a cone intersect in a straight line. This theorem led Pascal to develop several hundred related theorems in geometry. Pascal's activities, however, were not confined to pure mathematics. When he was about 19 years old, he built a calculating machine that he demonstrated to the king of France. It worked well enough to allow him to build and sell about 50 of them over a few years' time. His work on problems in atmospheric pressure eventually resulted in an early version of the gas law. At the age of 25, Pascal entered a Jansenist monastery to begin an ascetic life of study and argument. However, he continued his mathematical work. With Pierre de Fermat, Pascal laid the foundation for the theory of probability. In 1654, Pascal's friend, the Chevelier de Mere, had asked him to analyze a problem arising from a game of chance. Pascal in turn exchanged a number of letters with Fermat about the problem. This correspondence became the starting point for a theory of probability. However, neither published the ideas developed in the correspondence. The letters did inspire one of Pascal's contemporaries, Christian Huygens of Holland, to publish in 1657 a short tract on the mathematics of games involving dice. Pascal's name is now attached to "Pascals' Triangle" of binomial coefficients which plays and important role in the study combinations and probability. The triangle was known at least 600 years before Pascal became interested in it, but because of his contributions to its study, the triangle eventually became associated with his name. A sensitive and temperamental man, Pascal was obsessed with religious philosophy, a subject on which he wrote extensively. In his general philosophy he was very much taken with the concept of the infinite, which unsettled him and inspired in him a sense of awe. Over a period of years, he wrote on many religious, philosophical, and mathematical subjects. His notes and letters were edited and published posthumously as his Pensees. (Bowker Author Biography) visa färre
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Verk av Blaise Pascal

Tankar (1669) 4,730 exemplar
The Provincial Letters (1952) 434 exemplar
Britannica Great Books: Pascal (1670) — Författare — 342 exemplar
Human Happiness (2008) 118 exemplar
Oeuvres complètes (1954) 79 exemplar
Pensées et Opuscules (1927) 50 exemplar
Oeuvres complètes (1873) — Författare — 38 exemplar
The essential Pascal (1966) 32 exemplar
Gedachten (1997) 26 exemplar
The Living Thoughts of Pascal (1940) — Författare — 26 exemplar
Pascal (1954) 24 exemplar
Pascal : Oeuvres complètes, tome 1 (1998) — Författare — 21 exemplar
Tankar. 1 18 exemplar
Pascal : Oeuvres complètes, tome 2 (2000) — Författare — 16 exemplar
Da Arte de Persuadir (2003) 16 exemplar
Düsünceler (1932) 14 exemplar
Tankar. 2 11 exemplar
Frammenti politici (2000) 11 exemplar
Les Provinciales (2004) 9 exemplar
Myšlenky : výbor (2000) 7 exemplar
Œuvres complètes (1964) 7 exemplar
Provinciais, As (2016) 7 exemplar
Brev och småskrifter (2012) 7 exemplar
The works of Blaise Pascal (2013) 7 exemplar
Thoughts, Selections (1949) 6 exemplar
Oeuvres de Blaise Pascal (2012) 5 exemplar
Les pensées 5 exemplar
The Wager (1995) 5 exemplar
Pensaments i opuscles (2021) 5 exemplar
Dusunceler (2005) 4 exemplar
Pensées, tome 2 (1977) 4 exemplar
Pensamientos (2018) 4 exemplar
Pensieri: antologia (1981) 4 exemplar
Die Vernunft des Herzens (2010) 3 exemplar
The Heart of Pascal (1945) 3 exemplar
L'Oeuvre (2023) 3 exemplar
Pensieri. Scommessa su Dio (1995) 3 exemplar
Escritos Escogidos (2016) 2 exemplar
Of the Geometrical Spirit (2015) 2 exemplar
Opuscoli e lettere 2 exemplar
Mysli (2019) 2 exemplar
Pascal's Thoughts (2018) 2 exemplar
Thoughts [Part I] 2 exemplar
Oeuvres Completes 2 exemplar
Pensées et opuscules (1934) 2 exemplar
Pascal 2 exemplar
パンセ (中公文庫) (1973) 2 exemplar
Risaleler (2017) 2 exemplar
Thoughts [Part II] 2 exemplar
Pensieri, opuscoli, lettere (1978) 2 exemplar
Gedanken 2 exemplar
L'œuvre de Pascal 2 exemplar
Oeuvres complètes, tome 2 (1992) 2 exemplar
Pascal : Oeuvres Completes (1954) 2 exemplar
Selections From Pascal (2017) 2 exemplar
Opuscoli e lettere 2 exemplar
Pensees et opuscules (1914) 2 exemplar
Pascal 2 exemplar
Een gedachte voor elke dag (2005) 2 exemplar
[Pensieri] 1 (1996) 2 exemplar
Denken mit Blaise Pascal (2006) 1 exemplar
Oeuvres choisies 1 exemplar
Opúsculos (1964) 1 exemplar
Œuvre 1 exemplar
[Pensieri] 2 1 exemplar
Thoughts on Religion (2016) 1 exemplar
Myšlenky 1 exemplar
Pensées sur la justice (2011) 1 exemplar
Pascal Pens̩es 1 exemplar
Cugetări (2013) 1 exemplar
LES PROVINCIALES, 2 TOMES (1962) 1 exemplar
PENSÉES 1 exemplar
Les Provincials (1970) 1 exemplar
Les provinciales I 1 exemplar
Misli 1 exemplar
De Store tænkere: Pascal (2000) 1 exemplar
Variety 1 exemplar
«Il faut parier» (2009) 1 exemplar
Pensieri 2 (1996) 1 exemplar
Obras (1981) 1 exemplar
Worte, die befreien (1985) 1 exemplar
Pensees - Gedanken (2016) 1 exemplar
PENSEES -Poche- -1990- (1969) 1 exemplar
Oeuvres completes 1 exemplar
Spisi o milosti (2012) 1 exemplar
provinciales, Les (2011) 1 exemplar
Scrieri alese 1 exemplar
Opuscules philosophiques (1980) 1 exemplar
Tankar : II 1 exemplar
Œuvres, tome IV 1 exemplar
Œuvres, tome V 1 exemplar
Hairspray (2000) 1 exemplar
Pascal. Pensées 1 exemplar
Pensieri. Blaise Pascal (2009) 1 exemplar
Pascals Breve 1 exemplar
Pensieri scelta 1 exemplar
Philosophie Jetzt! Pascal (1997) 1 exemplar
PENSEES 2 1 exemplar
Js (1998) 1 exemplar
Tankar 1 1 exemplar
Pascal. Choix de pensées (1965) 1 exemplar

Associerade verk

The European Philosophers from Descartes to Nietzsche (1960) — Bidragsgivare — 427 exemplar
Western Philosophy: An Anthology (1996) — Författare, vissa utgåvor181 exemplar
Man and Spirit: The Speculative Philosophers (1947) — Bidragsgivare — 172 exemplar
Belief: Readings on the Reason for Faith (2010) — Bidragsgivare — 140 exemplar
God (Hackett Readings in Philosophy) (1996) — Bidragsgivare, vissa utgåvor58 exemplar
The Sheed and Ward Anthology of Catholic Philosophy (2005) — Bidragsgivare — 28 exemplar
Philosophical Issues: A Contemporary Introduction (1972) — Bidragsgivare — 17 exemplar
Reading Philosophy of Religion (2010) — Bidragsgivare — 9 exemplar
Profil d'une oeuvre : Pensées, Pascal, 1670 (1973) — Bidragsgivare — 8 exemplar
The Analog Sea Review: Number Three (2020) — Bidragsgivare — 8 exemplar


Allmänna fakta

Namn enligt folkbokföringen
Pascal, Blaise
Andra namn
Montalte, Louis de
Saint-Étienne-du-Mont, Paris, France
Clermont-Ferrand, France
Paris, France
Clermont-Ferrand, France
Paris, France
Rouen, France
Port-Royal Abbey, Paris, France
at home
Périer-Pascal, Gilberte (zuster)
Kort biografi
Blaise Pascal was born in Clermont-Ferrand, France. His parents were Antoinette Bégon and Étienne Pascal, a local magistrate and presiding judge of the tax court there. He had two sisters, Gilberte and Jacqueline. Their mother died in 1626, when Blaise was three, and a few years later the family moved to Paris. Étienne Pascal, also a mathematician and natural philosopher who was proficient in Latin and Greek, devoted himself to the education of his children, who all showed exceptional abilities. Although often ill and in pain, Blaise proved to be talented in mathematics and science from a young age. In 1640, at age 16. he published an essay on conic sections, Essai pour les coniques, which won praise as an important contribution to the relatively new field of projective geometry. Between 1642 and 1644, Pascal conceived and constructed a calculating device, known as the Pascaline, the world's first mechanical calculator. In 1646, Etienne fell and fractured his leg and seriously injured his hip; he received medical treatment from two brothers who were disciples of Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, abbé de Saint-Cyran and director of the abbey of Port-Royal in Paris. The abbé Saint-Cyran had introduced an austere moral and theological creed known as Jansenism and the whole Pascal family converted. Pascal became devoutly religious and his sister Jacqueline eventually became a Jansenist nun. Over the next few years, Pascal tested the theories of Galileo and of Evangelista Torricelli. In a famous experiment in 1648, he had his brother-in-law take barometric readings at various altitudes on the Puy-de-Dôme, the highest mountain in the Auvergne, so he could test Torricelli's ideas on atmospheric pressure. During this time, Pascal invented the syringe and the hydraulic press. The years 1651–1654 were another period of intense scientific work for Pascal, during which he composed treatises on the equilibrium of liquid solutions, on the weight and density of air, and on the arithmetic triangle. Together with Pierre de Fermat, he created the calculus of probabilities. Pascal had a carriage accident in November 1654 in which he narrowly escaped death, and considered this a summons to begin a new life in seclusion from the world. He entered the abbey of Port-Royal and remained there until his death at age 39 in 1662. The two works for which he is chiefly remembered, Lettres Provinciales (1657) and the Pensées (1658), date from the years of his life at Port-Royal. Pascal's contributions to science have been honored in a variety of ways. In 1972, Nicklaus Wirth named his new computer language Pascal. The Pascal (symbol Pa) is the unit of pressure designated by the International System of Units.



100 PAS 1
luvucenanzo06 | 32 andra recensioner | Sep 8, 2023 |
100 PAS 2
luvucenanzo06 | 32 andra recensioner | Sep 8, 2023 |
Os pensamentos do senhor Pascal começam bem, como uma coleção de aforismos pré-Nietzscheanos e com observações interessantes e de boa pena, mas descambam rumo ao seu objetivo, aparentemente principal, e de modo insuportável ao final - a defesa apologética do cristianismo. Não que não se possa defender em argumentos o cristianismo, mas aqui há uma enorme quantidade de petições de princípio e acenos para aqueles que já estão convencidos da importância dessa religião, muito mais que qualquer outra coisa. As certezas que a aceitação acrítica da fé trazem, acabam então engolindo as observações sobre a importância do hábito e dos costumes na formação da cultura, e há ainda a decepção do episódio da "aposta de Pascal" ser assim, no original, tão simplório.… (mer)
henrique_iwao | 32 andra recensioner | Oct 18, 2022 |



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