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The Meme Machine (2006)

av Susan Blackmore

Andra författare: Richard Dawkins (Förord)

Andra författare: Se under Andra författare.

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1,0881413,389 (3.77)9
What is a meme? First coined by Richard Dawkins in The Selfish Gene, a meme is any idea, behavior, or skill that can be transferred from one person to another by imitation: stories, fashions, inventions, recipes, songs, ways of plowing a field or throwing a baseball or making a sculpture. The meme is also one of the most important--and controversial--concepts to emerge since The Origin of the Species appeared nearly 150 years ago. In The Meme Machine Susan Blackmore boldly asserts: "Just as the design of our bodies can be understood only in terms of natural selection, so the design of our minds can be understood only in terms of memetic selection." Indeed, Blackmore shows that once our distant ancestors acquired the crucial ability to imitate, a second kind of natural selection began, a survival of the fittest amongst competing ideas and behaviors. Ideas and behaviors that proved most adaptive--making tools, for example, or using language--survived and flourished, replicating themselves in as many minds as possible. These memes then passed themselves on from generation to generation by helping to ensure that the genes of those who acquired them also survived and reproduced. Applying this theory to many aspects of human life, Blackmore offers brilliant explanations for why we live in cities, why we talk so much, why we can't stop thinking, why we behave altruistically, how we choose our mates, and much more. With controversial implications for our religious beliefs, our free will, our very sense of "self," The Meme Machine offers a provocative theory everyone will soon be talking about.… (mer)
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Mixed thoughts on this. I think Ms. Blackmore has some good substance to her memetics theory, but there are points where she gets too fuzzy, and her explanations didn't convince me completely of its merits. She compares the replication of memes to that of genes, requiring fidelity, fecundity and longevity. I haven't bought off on their fecundity, much less the fidelity of memetic replication, but as this is not my field, I'll just keep thinking.

It took me mulling over the whole when near the end to nail what should have been obvious to me earlier: she restricts her memetic theory to humans because, she contends, only humans can imitate. [As an aside, something like that is direly ripe for religious picking (to counter the dreaded evolutionary genetic theory). And I'm surprised it hasn't to my knowledge been picked.] I just read Frans de Waals' The Bonobo and the Atheist and I wonder if he would agree - I suspect not.

I also think she imparts too large an impact to her theory: Evolutionary theory faced enormous opposition because it provided a view of humans that humans do not like. The same will probably be true of memetics.

Not really. How is any of what is in this book something humans will not like? Moreover, how many people actually know anything about it? Or care? My observation above hints at no conflict with their religious thoughts on human evolution (or non-evolution.) By limiting such a theory to humans only, one shouldn't be comparing to genetics - genes are in every life in our tiny world, but memes are limited to one highly developed primate? ( )
  Razinha | May 23, 2017 |
Benzersiz taklit yetenekleriyle insanlar, sıra dışı varlıklardır. Fikirleri, alışkanlıkları, becerileri, davranışları, buluşları, şarkıları ve hikayeleri birbirlerinden kopyalarlar. Bunların hepsi birer "mem"dir. Mimik kelimesinden türeyen mem kavramının temel özelliği bunların gelecek kuşaklara taklitle aktarılmasıdır. Genler kendilerini moleküler düzeyde kopya ederek çoğalırken, memler toplum içinde taklit edilerek hayatta kalırlar. Hoşa giden bir müzik parçasının, bir ressamın tablosunun taklit edilmesi, bütün kültürlerde ortak efsanelerin olması gibi, başarılı olan "kültür parçası" taklit edilir, başarısız olan elenir.

Biyoloji insanın fizyolojik evrimini açıklarken, memetik bilimi insanın kültürel evrimine ışık tutar. Memetik kuram, Richard Dawkins'in 1976 yılında ortaya attığı "mem" kavramına dayanır. Dawkins'in evrim sürecinin son aşaması olarak nitelendirdiği bu 3. eşleyiciler (ilki kristal yapılar, ikincisi ise bu kristal yapıların üzerinde ortaya çıkan DNA moleküllerindeki genler olmak üzere), popüler dilde "kültürel genler" olarak tanımlanmaktadır.

Susan Blackmore, memetik kuramındaki çalışmaları ve memetik araştırmaların halka aktarılmasındaki katkılarından dolayı son yıllarda çok ünlenmiş bir bilim insanıdır. Konuyla ilgili birçok popüler kitabı olan Dr. Susan Blackmore ayrıca bilinç felsefesine yönelik çalışmaları ile de adından söz ettirmektedir.

"Her teori en iyi atışını yapmayı hak eder ve bu, Susan Blackmore'un mem kuramına kazandırdığı şeydir. ... Kitabını tavsiye ettiğim için memnunum."

RIGHARD DAWKINS'in önsözünden ....

"Memetiğin kültürel bir bilim olmasını uman ya da bundan korkan herkes, sağlam temellere dayanan bu keşfi, çok aydınlatıcı bulacaklar." DANIEL DENNETT

"Dawkins, Gen Bencildir'de küçük bir saatli bomba yerleştirmişti. ... Susan Blackmore o bombayı patlattı. "MATT RIDLEY, Times Literary Supplement

"Memetiklc tanışmamızı sağlayan, bugüne kadar yazılmış en iyi kitap..." ( )
  Cagatay | Jun 13, 2016 |
The one that started it all for me. I wasn't a big fan of non-fiction before reading this, but afterwards I tried to grapple evolutionary biology, sociobiology, psychology.... I'm so curious about this stuff now; I wish I could go back to school and get guidance from a professor. ( )
  Cheryl_in_CC_NV | Jun 6, 2016 |
I have to admit that when I first started reading this book I was taken aback, but I stuck with it and am ultimately impressed with the case that Blackmore painstakingly makes. I would highly recommend this book, especially if you have an enduring interest in human culture and religion. Even if you don't agree with her conclusions, I think her arguments are worth considering. ( )
  gmmoney | Sep 8, 2010 |
This book was worth the read. While in many ways it struggled with the burden of proof and lack of research into the field of memes, and as a result came across as a pseudo-scientific approach at debunking all sorts of current thinking, it is put together well and really walks the reader to the rather shocking conclusion. ( )
  librarythingaliba | Apr 21, 2010 |
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» Lägg till fler författare (4 möjliga)

Författarens namnRollTyp av författareVerk?Status
Blackmore, Susanprimär författarealla utgåvorbekräftat
Dawkins, RichardFörordmedförfattarealla utgåvorbekräftat
Greguss, FerencÖversättaremedförfattarevissa utgåvorbekräftat
Niehaus-Osterloh, MonikaÖversättaremedförfattarevissa utgåvorbekräftat
Saarinen, OsmoÖversättaremedförfattarevissa utgåvorbekräftat
Thomass, BalthasarÖversättaremedförfattarevissa utgåvorbekräftat
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What is a meme? First coined by Richard Dawkins in The Selfish Gene, a meme is any idea, behavior, or skill that can be transferred from one person to another by imitation: stories, fashions, inventions, recipes, songs, ways of plowing a field or throwing a baseball or making a sculpture. The meme is also one of the most important--and controversial--concepts to emerge since The Origin of the Species appeared nearly 150 years ago. In The Meme Machine Susan Blackmore boldly asserts: "Just as the design of our bodies can be understood only in terms of natural selection, so the design of our minds can be understood only in terms of memetic selection." Indeed, Blackmore shows that once our distant ancestors acquired the crucial ability to imitate, a second kind of natural selection began, a survival of the fittest amongst competing ideas and behaviors. Ideas and behaviors that proved most adaptive--making tools, for example, or using language--survived and flourished, replicating themselves in as many minds as possible. These memes then passed themselves on from generation to generation by helping to ensure that the genes of those who acquired them also survived and reproduced. Applying this theory to many aspects of human life, Blackmore offers brilliant explanations for why we live in cities, why we talk so much, why we can't stop thinking, why we behave altruistically, how we choose our mates, and much more. With controversial implications for our religious beliefs, our free will, our very sense of "self," The Meme Machine offers a provocative theory everyone will soon be talking about.

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