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Hjältarnas uttåg : som Salamis soldater (2001)

av Javier Cercas

Andra författare: Se under Andra författare.

MedlemmarRecensionerPopularitetGenomsnittligt betygOmnämnanden
1,3634813,516 (3.73)122
In the final moments of the Spanish Civil War, fifty prominent Nationalist prisoners were executed by firing squad. Among them is the writer and fascist Rafael Sanchez Mazas. As the guns fire, he escapes into the forest, and can hear a search party and their dogs hunting him down. The branches move and he finds himself looking in the eyes of a militiaman, and faces death for the second time that day. But the unknown soldier simply turns and walks away. Sanchez Mazas becomes a national hero and the soldier disappears into history. As Cercas sifts the evidence to establish what happened, he realises that the true hero may not be Sanchez Mazas at all, but the soldier who chose not to shoot him. Who was he? Why did he spare him? And might he still be alive?… (mer)
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Soldados de Salamina
Javier Cercas
Publicado: 2001 | 157 páginas
Novela Histórico Otros Realista

A finales de enero de 1939, apenas dos meses antes del final de la guerra civil, un grupo de prisioneros franquistas es fusilado cerca la frontera francesa por soldados republicanos que huyen hacia el exilio. Entre esos prisioneros se halla Rafael Sánchez Mazas, fundador e ideólogo de la Falange, poeta y futuro ministro de Franco, quien consigue milagrosamente escapar y ocultarse en el bosque mientras los republicanos lo persiguen; hasta que un soldado lo descubre, lo encañona y, mirándolo a los ojos, le perdona la vida. Sesenta años más tarde, un novelista fracasado descubre por azar este enterrado episodio bélico y, fascinado por él, emprende una investigación para aclarar sus circunstancias y desentrañar su significado. ¿Quién era de verdad Rafael Sánchez Mazas? ¿Cuál fue su verdadera peripecia de guerra? ¿Quién fue el soldado que le dejó escapar? ¿Y por qué lo hizo? ¿Qué secreto escondía su mirada?
  libreriarofer | Dec 13, 2023 |
In den letzten Tag des spanischen Bürgerkriegs soll der inhaftierte Mitbegründer der Falange, Rafael Sanchéz Mazas, von den sich zurückziehenden Republikanern exekutiert werden. Doch Mazas gelingt die Flucht und er überlebt, weil ihn zunächst ein unbekannter republikanischer Soldat deckt und ihm hernach Deserteure, von Cercas romantisierend "Freunde des Waldes" genannt, Unterschlupf gewähren.

Cercas Roman ist als Bericht eines Schriftstellers, der die Ergeignisse rund um Mazas' gescheiterte Hinrichtung in den letzten Kriegstagen aufzukären versucht, verfasst. Cercas tritt sohin quasi selbst als Ich-Erzähler und betont mehrmals, eine "Erzählung nach der Wirklichkeit" zu verfassen. Das Werk beschäftigt sich mit Zufällen und deren Bedeutung auf den Verlauf der Geschichte und das Schicksal mehrerer Menschen.

Doch Cercas Erzählung vermag nicht zu fesseln. Er bläht die Recherchen einer kurzen Episode des Bürgerkriegs mühsam auf, ohne die beteiligten Personen selbst zu hinterfragen, Hintergründe aufzuzeigen oder sich gar mit Verbrechen und Grausamkeit im Krieg mehr als oberflächlich auseinanderzusetzen. Statt einen grundsätzlich spannenden Plot zu erzählen, konstruiert er um die journalistische Recherche eine langweilige Rahmenhandlung ohne Verve, die die eigentlichen, historischen Ereignisse in den Hintergrund rückt. Fraglich bleibt auch, weshalb Cercas als Held seiner Geschichte, neben dem unbekannten republikanischen Soldaten, der Mazas nicht verrät, ausgerechnet Rafael Sanchéz Mazas selbst, sohin einen mittelmäßigen Schriftsteller und Vorreiter des spanischen Faschismus, als Held seines Romans gewählt hat. ( )
  schmechi | Sep 7, 2023 |
Cercas uses metafiction—a technique in which the author focuses as much on a work’s own structure (regularly intruding the remind the reader that he is reading fiction) as on its story—as a way of analyzing the relationship between literature and reality or between life and art. The ostensible subject of the book is an investigation (by a novelist/journalist named Javier Cercas) into an incident that took place during the Spanish Civil War: a founder and key thinker in the Falangist (fascist) party miraculously escapes execution only to be found by a Republican soldier who unaccountably spares his life. The Fascist becomes a national hero under Franco; the soldier is forgotten. Cercas, the character, suffers from career-ending writer's block, but hopes that by discovering what “really” happened, he may be able to resuscitate his novelistic career. The book is divided into three parts: the first part is the story of his research; the second part is the story resulting from the first part. Had the book ended here, it would have been mildly interesting but, ultimately, tedious. Too much detail, far more than you are likely to want to know about this Falangist hero. Ah…but the third part: this is the key. This is where story and history intertwine, where memory and forgetting become an inescapable part of the meaning of life and death. This last part is riveting and beautifully told. The book is even more complex than I suggest and worthy of a graduate school seminar to unpack its meanings. Whether you’ll have the patience for it only you can say. But if you make it to the end, I think you’ll agree it was time well spent.
(P.S. I have just read a fascinating essay on the book which suggests, quite plausibly, that the middle third of the book, the "report" resulting from part one, is intentionally boring and tedious. By writing it that way, Javier Cercas the author (as opposed to Javier Cercas the character) demonstrates that the writer's block is still there and only when the new "assignment" that is part three of the novel comes about does Cercas the character succeed...on multiple levels. The analysis makes great sense and, after further reflection, I have decided to raise my rating.) ( )
  Gypsy_Boy | Aug 23, 2023 |
Un joven periodista topa por casualidad con una historia fascinante, y muy significativa, de la Guerra Civil española, y se propone reconstruirla. Cuando las tropas republicanas se retiran hacia la frontera francesa, camino del exilio, en el desorden de la desbandada alguien toma la decisión de fusilar a un grupo de presos franquistas. Entre ellos se halla Rafael Sánchez-Mazas, fundador e ideólogo de Falange, quizás uno de los responsables directos del conflicto fratricida. Pero Sánchez-Mazas no sólo logra escapar del fusilamiento colectivo, sino que, cuando los republicanos salen en su busca, un miliciano anónimo le encañona y en el último momento le perdona la vida. Su buena estrella le permitirá vivir emboscado hasta el final de la guerra, protegido por un grupo de campesinos de la región, aunque siempre recordará a aquel miliciano de extraña mirada que no lo delató. El narrador se propone desentrañar el secreto del enigmático Sánchez-Mazas, de su asombrosa aventura de guerra, pero sólo para acabar descubriendo, en un quiebro inesperado, que el significado de esta historia se encuentra donde menos podía esperarlo, porque uno no encuentra lo que busca, sino lo que la realidad le entrega .
  Natt90 | Mar 30, 2023 |
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The Spanish civil war is staggering to its inevitable conclusion. After the fall of Barcelona, the remnants of the Republican army flee towards the French border. An order comes for them to execute their nationalist prisoners, among them Sanchez Mazas, one of the ideologues whose inflamed rhetoric brought catastrophe to Spain in the first place.

Some 50 of the prisoners are lined up. Mazas hears the shots but, realising he has only been wounded, escapes into the woods. He is discovered by a republican militiaman, who stares him in the face, and then spares his life, shouting to his companions that there is no one there. For several days, the Falange leader hides out in the forests, helped by some deserters from the Republican side, and then is rescued by Franco's troops. He is received as a hero, and feted throughout the newly nationalist country.

He is made a minister in the first Franco government, but quickly becomes disillusioned with the grubbiness of everyday politics, so far from his early high poetic ideals. He inherits money, and lives out his days as a frustrated writer, pursued by dreams of glory and heroism, so lacking in his own life.

Mazas's story is the central panel of Javier Cercas's tryptich. In the first part, we meet the narrator, also called "Javier Cercas", who disarmingly admits from the start that he is a failure as husband and writer. He hears of the story of Sanchez Mazas from the Falangist's son, and the fact that he has just lost his own father sets him on a journey to rescue the forgotten writer from oblivion, in the hope that he might also rescue his own career.

The narrator is fascinated by the way memory congeals into history: the insidious process by which personal narratives become part of a past that can no longer be verified, and is therefore taken to be the truth, even though it is only one possible version of what actually happened. As Cercas points out, the events of the Spanish civil war, which took place only a generation earlier, are becoming as distant and fixed as the story of the soldiers who fought the Persian fleet at Salamis more than 2,000 years earlier.

The narrator is at pains to stress that he is telling a "true story". But from the very outset of Soldiers of Salamis it is plain that this is a literary quest, the hope being that the fictional invention will be more convincing in the end than any biographical memoir. A vital part of the attempt to keep the past as living memory rather than dead history is to investigate individual motives, and the story of Mazas revolves around a central question: what exactly makes a hero? Is it someone like Mazas, who proclaims the glory of violence and the need for radical change, but never actually fights for it; or is heroism something different entirely?

Cercas's response comes in the third section of the novel. This is an account of how the narrator manages to track down the person who might have been the republican militiaman who spared Mazas's life. This man, Antoni Miralles, will not say straight out whether he was the man or not. But talking to him in an old people's home on the outskirts of Dijon, in France, the narrator becomes convinced he is the real hero, "someone who has courage and an instinct for virtue, and therefore never makes a mistake, or at least doesn't make a mistake the one time when it matters, and therefore can't not be a hero".

The book ends with the narrator triumphantly certain that, whether or not Miralles was the man in question, on the level of his own fiction he is the perfect fit to help "complete the mechanism" of his book, and in so doing rescue from oblivion all the "soldiers of Salamis" - the warriors who were heroes despite knowing they were fighting an already lost cause.

Cercas's book has created a sensation in Spain. Whereas in Britain it is easy enough to know who the heroes were - the ones who fought and defeated fascism - the situation in Spain is very different. Not only was the country split in two during the civil war, but there followed 40 years of rule by one side that sought to deny any virtues to its adversaries. As Cercas tells us, "there is a monument to the war dead in every town in Spain. How many have you seen with, at the very least, the names of the fallen from both sides?"

Yet at the same time, Franco and his supporters "won the war but lost the history of literature". Internationally, it is the republicans who are seen as heroes, whether the writer is Hemingway, Orwell or André Malraux. In the end, Soldiers of Salamis remains firmly in this tradition, while offering a gentle and often moving reassertion that individual lives and actions matter most, however overwhelming the historical circumstances may seem.

Nick Caistor is the translator of Juan MarsË's Lizard Tails.
tillagd av thegeneral | ändraThe Guardian, Nick Caistor (Jun 21, 2003)
 
Este libro, que se jacta tanto de no fantasear, de ceñirse a lo estrictamente comprobado, en verdad transpira literatura por todos sus poros. Los literatos ocupan en él un puesto clave, aunque no figuren en el libro como literatos, sino en forma de circunstanciales peones que, de manera casual, disparan en la mente del narrador la idea de contar esta historia, de hacerla avanzar, o la manera de cerrarla. La inicia Sánchez Ferlosio, revelándole el episodio del fusilamiento de su padre, y, cuando está detenida y a punto de naufragar, la relanza Roberto Bolaño, hablando a Javier Cercas del fabuloso Antoni Miralles, en quien aquél cree identificar, por un pálpito que todo su talento narrativo está a punto de convertir en verdad fehaciente en las últimas páginas del libro, al miliciano anónimo que perdonó la vida a Sánchez Mazas. Este dato escondido queda allí, flotando en el vacío, a ver si el lector se atreve a ir más allá de lo que fue el narrador, y decide que, efectivamente, la milagrosa coincidencia tuvo lugar, y fue Miralles, combatiente de mil batallas, miliciano republicano en España, héroe anónimo de la columna Leclerc en los desiertos africanos y compañero de la liberación en Francia, el oscuro soldadito que, en un gesto de humanidad, salvó la vida al señorito escribidor falangista convencido de que, a lo largo de la historia, siempre un pelotón de soldados 'había salvado la civilización'.
tillagd av Alguien | ändraEl País, Mario Vargas Llosa (Sep 3, 2001)
 

» Lägg till fler författare (23 möjliga)

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Javier Cercasprimär författarealla utgåvorberäknat
Carelli, WagnerÖversättaremedförfattarevissa utgåvorbekräftat
סערי, רמיÖversättaremedförfattarevissa utgåvorbekräftat
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In the final moments of the Spanish Civil War, fifty prominent Nationalist prisoners were executed by firing squad. Among them is the writer and fascist Rafael Sanchez Mazas. As the guns fire, he escapes into the forest, and can hear a search party and their dogs hunting him down. The branches move and he finds himself looking in the eyes of a militiaman, and faces death for the second time that day. But the unknown soldier simply turns and walks away. Sanchez Mazas becomes a national hero and the soldier disappears into history. As Cercas sifts the evidence to establish what happened, he realises that the true hero may not be Sanchez Mazas at all, but the soldier who chose not to shoot him. Who was he? Why did he spare him? And might he still be alive?

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